Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Safe Water

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1. Protazoa--like cryptosporidia and giardia are the largest of the organisms and easiest to remove with simple filtration.
2. Bacteria--like salmonella and cholera are smaller and harder to remove.
3. Viruses--like hepatitis are the smallest and hardest to remove. They are not removed by filters alone.

Methods of Purification
1. Boiling:
Most water can be purified for drinking purposes by boiling it for 5 to 10 minutes, this will destroy the germs. If desired, to improve the taste of the water after boiling, simply pour the boiled water, after
it has been cooled, from one container to another several times.

2. Chlorination:
It may not be possible to boil your drinking water because of gas or electric power failure or damage
to your stove. Open flames should be avoided in the first few hours after an enemy attack or natural
disaster (such as an earthquake), because of the danger from gas or fuel-oil leaks in your home or
neighborhood. Under these conditions, it would be better to chlorinate your drinking water instead of
boiling it. Household bleach solution available in grocery stores that contains hypochlorite, a chlorine
compound, may be used for this purpose. 

8 drops bleach per gallon of water, 1/2 tsp. per 5 gallons of water, 2 TBSP per 50 gallons of water.
(Double the quantity if the water is cloudy). Mix or shake thoroughly. This is easily done by adding the
bleach when the container is only about half full.  The taste or smell of chlorine (after treated water stands for 30 minutes) is a sign of safety. Let the chlorinated water sit for 24 hours before drinking.

3. Purification tablets:
Use tablets in accordance with instructions on the package. Usually one tablet is sufficient for 1 quart
of water; the dosage is doubled with cloudy water.

4. Iodine:
Ordinary household iodine may be used to purify small quantities of water. Add 2 or 3 drops of tincture of iodine or iodine solution to each quart of clear water and 8 to 10 drops of iodine to each quart of cloudy water. Mix and allow to stand for 30 minutes.

5. Sterilized water:
Sterilized water may also be stored. To sterilize, boil water one to three minutes and pour into hot, sterilized jars with sterilized lids, or process bottles of water in a water bath (like you were canning fruit)-twenty minutes for a quart jar and twenty-five minutes for a two-quart jar.

Care and Use of Water Supplies
In addition to water stored in containers, there is usually other water available in most homes that is
drinkable, such as: Water and other liquids normally found in the kitchen, including ice cubes, milk, soft drinks, and fruit and vegetable juices.

Water in the hot water heater. (20 to 60 gallons).  Water heaters should be drained periodically to
release any accumulated sediment so that the full capacity of the container is readily usable. Water in the flush tanks (not the bowls) of home

In the home, occupants should drink first the water they know is uncontaminated, such as that mentioned above. If necessary, “suspicious” water, such as cloudy water from regular faucets or perhaps some muddy water from a nearby stream or pond can be used after it has been purified. This is how to purify it:

1. Strain the water through a paper towel or several thicknesses of a clean cloth, to remove dirt, if any. Or else let the water settle in a container for 24 hours by which time any solid particles would have sunk to the bottom. A handful of clay soil in each gallon water would help this settling process.

2. Next, boil the water for 10 minutes or add chlorine
according to the previous directions.

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